I need a concept map done for each of the following clinical case studies. I have uploaded the guidelines and a PDF file of the case studies. and I have uploaded the steps on how to complete the concept maps.
Clinical Reasoning Cases in Nursing
Mariann Harding, PhD, RN, CNE Associate Professor, Department of Nursing, Kent State University at Tuscarawas, New Philadelphia, Ohio
Julie S. Snyder, MSN, RN-BC Lecturer, School of Nursing, Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia
Table of Contents
Inside Front Cover
What Is Clinical Reasoning?
What Is New in This Edition
The “How To” of Case Studies
Case Study 1
Case Study 2
Case Study 3
Case Study 4
Case Study 5
Case Study 6
Case Study 7
Case Study 8
Case Study 9
Case Study 10
Case Study 11
Case Study 12
Case Study 13
Case Study 14
Case Study 15
Case Study 16
Case Study 17
Case Study 18
Case Study 19
Case Study 20
Case Study 21
Case Study 22
2: Gas Exchange
Case Study 23
Case Study 24
Case Study 25
Case Study 26
Case Study 27
Case Study 28
Case Study 29
Case Study 30
Case Study 31
Case Study 32
Case Study 33
Case Study 34
Case Study 35
Case Study 36
Case Study 37
Case Study 38
Case Study 39
Case Study 40
Case Study 41
Case Study 42
Case Study 43
Case Study 44
Case Study 45
Case Study 46
Case Study 47
Case Study 48
Case Study 49
Case Study 50
Case Study 51
Case Study 52
Case Study 53
Case Study 54
Case Study 55
Case Study 56
Case Study 57
Case Study 58
Case Study 59
Case Study 60
Case Study 61
Case Study 62
Case Study 63
Case Study 64
Case Study 65
Case Study 66
5: Urinary Elimination
Case Study 67
Case Study 68
Case Study 69
Case Study 70
Case Study 71
Case Study 72
Case Study 73
Case Study 74
Case Study 75
6: Intracranial Regulation
Case Study 76
Case Study 77
Case Study 78
Case Study 79
Case Study 80
Case Study 81
Case Study 82
Case Study 83
Case Study 84
Case Study 85
Case Study 86
Case Study 87
Case Study 88
7: Metabolism and Glucose Regulation
Case Study 89
Case Study 90
Case Study 91
Case Study 92
Case Study 93
Case Study 94
Case Study 95
Case Study 96
Case Study 97
Case Study 98
Case Study 99
Case Study 100
Case Study 101
Case Study 102
Case Study 103
Case Study 104
Case Study 105
Case Study 106
9: Cellular Regulation
Case Study 107
Case Study 108
Case Study 109
Case Study 110
Case Study 111
Case Study 112
Case Study 113
Case Study 114
Case Study 115
10: Tissue Integrity
Case Study 116
Case Study 117
Case Study 118
Case Study 119
Case Study 120
Case Study 121
Case Study 122
12: Infection and Inflammation
Case Study 123
Case Study 124
Case Study 125
Case Study 126
Case Study 127
Case Study 128
Case Study 129
Case Study 130
Case Study 131
Case Study 132
Case Study 133
Case Study 134
Case Study 135
Case Study 136
Case Study 137
Case Study 138
Case Study 139
Case Study 140
Case Study 141
Case Study 142
Case Study 143
15: Mood, Stress, and Addiction
Case Study 144
Case Study 145
Case Study 146
Case Study 147
Case Study 148
Case Study 149
Case Study 150
Inside Front Cover
Brief Contents Chapter 1 Perfusion, 1 Chapter 2 Gas Exchange, 99 Chapter 3 Mobility, 187 Chapter 4 Digestion, 247 Chapter 5 Urinary Elimination, 301 Chapter 6 Intracranial Regulation, 339 Chapter 7 Metabolism and Glucose Regulation, 401 Chapter 8 Immunity, 455 Chapter 9 Cellular Regulation, 483
Chapter 10 Tissue Integrity, 527 Chapter 11 Cognition, 547 Chapter 12 Infection and Inflammation, 561 Chapter 13 Developmental, 593 Chapter 14 Reproductive, 615 Chapter 15 Mood, Stress, and Addiction, 645
CLINICAL REASONING CASES IN NURSING, SEVENTH EDITION ISBN: 978-0-323-52736-1
Copyright © 2020 by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
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This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).
Notice Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds or experiments described herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made. To the fullest extent of the law, no responsibility is assumed by Elsevier, authors, editors or contributors for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or
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Printed in the United States of America Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Meghan Davis, MSN-Ed, CCRN, RN Registered Nurse, Virginia Beach, Virginia
Jatifha C. Felton, MSN-Ed, APRN, ACNCP-AG, CCRN Critical Care Nurse Practitioner, Chesapeake Regional Healthcare, Chesapeake, Virginia
Sherry D. Ferki, RN, MSN Adjunct Faculty, School of Nursing, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia
Joanna Van Sant, MSN, RN Clinical Nurse Manager–Oncology Unit, Sentara Northern Virginia Medical Center, Woodbridge, Virginia
Heidi Matarasso Bakerman, RN, BA Nursing, MscN Nursing Instructor, Nursing Vanier College, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Beverly Banks, MSN, BSN, RN Full Time Faculty, Nursing, Alpena Community College, Alpena, Michigan
Mitzi L. Bass, MPH, MSN, RN Assistant Professor of Nursing, School of Nursing and Health Professions, Baltimore City Community College, Baltimore, Maryland
Michelle Bayard, BSN, RN Teacher, Faculty of Careers and Technology: Nursing Vanier College, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Diana Lynne Burgess, MSN, RN Nursing Faculty—ADN Program, St. Petersburg College of Nursing, St. Petersburg, Florida
Lacey M. Campbell, MSN, RN Program Coordinator Accelerated LPN to RN Program, Texas County Technical College, Houston, Missouri
Diane Cohen, MSN, RN Professor—Nursing, MassBay Community College, Framingham, Massachusetts
Nicola Eynon-Brown, RN(EC), BNSc, MN, NP, CPNP- PC Professor, School of Baccalaureate Nursing, St. Lawrence College, Brockville, Ontario, Canada
Melissa Marie Fischer, MSN, RN ADN Nursing Faculty, Nursing, Blackhawk Technical College, Janesville, Wisconsin
Victoria A. Greenwood, MSN, MSEd, RN-BC Assistant Professor, Nursing, The Sage Colleges, Troy, New York
Rose A. Harding, MSN, RN Coordinator, Standardized Test
Evaluation Committee, JoAnne Gay Dishman School of Nursing, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas
Antonea Jackson, PhD (c), MSN, RN CNE Clinical Assistant Professor, Nursing, Prairie View A&M University, Houston, Texas
Llynne C. Kiernan, DNP, MSN, RN-BC Assistant Professor of Nursing, Nursing, Norwich University, Northfield, Vermont
Tonie Metheny, MS, RN, CNE Clinical Instructor, Nursing, Fran and Earl Ziegler College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Kathleen S. Murtaugh, MSN, RN, CNA Assistant Professor, Nursing, St. Elizabeth School of Nursing/University of Saint Francis, Lafayette, Indiana
Karen Noss, MSN, RN Professor, Nursing Department, Luzerne County Community College, Nanticoke, Pennsylvania
Alicia Powell, MSN, RNC Clinical Nurse Educator, Women’s Services, Chesapeake Regional Healthcare, Chesapeake, Virginia
Deborah J. Pumo, MS, RN, EdD Nursing Professor, Nursing Department, Illinois Valley Community College, Oglesby, Illinois
Sandra A. Ranck, MSN, RN Program Administrator, Auburn Practical Nursing Program, Auburn Career Center, Concord Township, Ohio
Cherie R. Rebar, PhD, MBA, RN, COI Professor of Nursing, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio
Alicia N. Rose, ACNS-BC, PMHNP-BC, RN-BC, CSAC Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, Meridian Psychotherapy, Virginia Beach, Virginia
Jane Tyerman, BA, RN, BScN, MScN, PhD Professor, Trent/Fleming School of Nursing, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
To provide safe, quality care, nurses need to have well-developed clinical reasoning skills. As new graduates, you will make decisions and take actions of an increasingly sophisticated nature. You will encounter problems you have never seen or heard about during your classroom and clinical experiences. You will have to make complex decisions with little or no guidance and limited resources.
We want you to be exposed to as much as possible during your student days, but more importantly, we want you to learn to think. You cannot memorize your way out of any situation, but you can think your way out of any situation. We know that students often learn more and faster when they have the freedom to make mistakes. This book is designed to allow you to look at how to solve problems and find answers without the pressure of someone’s life hanging in the balance. We want you to do well. We want you to be the best. It is our wish for you to grow into confident, competent nursing professionals. We want you to be very, very good at what you do!
What Is Clinical Reasoning? Clinical reasoning is not memorizing lists of facts or the steps of procedures. Instead, clinical reasoning is an analytical process that can help you think about a patient care issue in an organized and efficient manner. Five steps are involved in clinical reasoning. Thinking about these steps may help you when you work through the questions in your cases. Here are the five steps with an explanation of what they mean.
1. Recognize and define the problem by asking the right questions:
Exactly what is it you need to know? What is the question asking?
2. Select the information or data necessary to solve the problem or answer the question: First you have to ask whether all the necessary information is there. If not, how and where can you get the additional information? What other resources are available? This is one of the most difficult steps. In real clinical experiences, you rarely have all of the information, so you have to learn where you can get necessary data. For instance, patient and family interviews, nursing charting, the patient medical chart, laboratory data on your computer, your observations, and your own physical assessment can help you identify important clues. Of course, information can rapidly become outdated. To make sure you are accessing the most current and accurate information, you will occasionally need to use the Internet to answer a question.
3. Recognize stated and unstated assumptions; that is, what do you think is or is not true? Sometimes answers or solutions seem obvious; just because something seems obvious does not mean it is correct. You may need to consider several possible answers or solutions. Consider all clues carefully and do not dismiss a possibility too quickly. Remember, “You never find an answer you don’t think of.”
4. Formulate and select relevant and/or potential decisions: Try to think of as many possibilities as you can. Consider the pros and cons of the consequences of making each decision. What is the best answer/solution? What could go wrong? This requires considering many different angles. In today’s health care settings, decision making often requires balancing the well- being needs of the patient, the preferences and concerns of the patient and caregiver, and financial limitations imposed by the reimbursement system. In making decisions, you need to take into account all relevant factors. Remember, you may need to explain why you rejected other options.
5. Draw a valid, informed conclusion: Consider all data; then
determine what is relevant and what makes the most sense. Only then should you draw your conclusion.
It may look as if this kind of reasoning comes naturally to your instructors and experienced nurses. You can be certain that even experienced nurses were once where you are now. The rapid and sound decision making that is essential to good nursing requires years of practice. The practice of good clinical reasoning leads to good thinking in clinical practice. This book will help you practice the important steps in making sound clinical judgments until the process starts to come naturally.
What Is New in This Edition The conceptual approach to nursing education is a new way to manage information and help students develop clinical reasoning skills. In this edition, we chose to reorganize the cases in each section by health-illness concepts. Within each section, you will see the basic principles of that concept applied in exemplars, or models of that concept, that cross care settings, the life span, and the health-illness continuum. For example, you may be enrolled in a course that focuses on gas exchange, including risk factors, physiologic mechanisms, assessment, and interventions to promote optimal oxygenation. Based on prevalence and incidence, exemplars such as pneumonia, influenza, and asthma, are used to show how to apply principles across ages and care settings. To ensure that there are cases that cover common exemplars you may see in class, we added over 20 new cases. Like the existing cases, each of these are adaptations of actual scenarios encountered in the clinical setting—there is no better way to learn than from real patients!
Because nurses play a vital role in improving the safety and quality of patient care, you need to learn interventions you will use to deliver safe care and enhance patient outcomes. To help you learn key principles, you will note questions marked with a
. These questions involve scenarios that typically include inherent
risks, such as medication administration, fall and pressure injury reduction protocols, and preventing health care–associated infections.
The “How To” of Case Studies When you begin each case, read through the whole story once, from start to finish, getting a general idea of what it is about. Write down things you have to look up. This will help you move through the case smoothly and get more out of it. How much you have to look up will depend on where you are in your program, what you know, and how much experience you already have. Preparing cases will become easier as you advance in your program.
We would like to express our appreciation to the editorial Elsevier staff, especially Laura Goodrich, Lee Henderson, and Tracey Schriefer for their professional support and contributions in guiding this text to publication. We extend a special thanks to our reviewers, who gave us helpful suggestions and insights as we developed this edition.
Mariann’s gratitude goes to those she loves most—her husband, Jeff, and her daughters, Kate and Sarah. She gives a special thanks to her students, colleagues, and patients; each inspire her passion for nursing and education. Lastly, Mariann praises God, who has graciously bestowed more blessings than could ever be imagined.
Julie thanks her husband, Jonathan, for his love, support, and patience during this project. She is grateful for the encouragement from daughter Emily, son-in-law Randy, and parents Willis and Jean Simmons. Julie appreciates the hard work of colleagues Sherry Ferki, Jatifha Felton, Meghan Davis, Joanna Van Sant, Alicia Rose, and Alicia Powell as contributors and reviewers for this edition. She is especially thankful to the students, whose eagerness to learn is an inspiration. Most importantly, Julie gives thanks to God, our source of hope and strength.
Case Study 1 Name_________________________________ Class/Group ______________________________ Date ___________
Scenario M.G., a “frequent flier,” is admitted to the emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF). She was discharged from the hospital 10 days ago and comes in today stating, “I just had to come to the hospital today because I can’t catch my breath and my legs are as big as tree trunks.” After further questioning, you learn she is strictly following the fluid and salt restriction ordered during her last hospital admission. She reports gaining 1 to 2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kg) every day since her discharge.
1. What error in discharge teaching most likely occurred? 2. An echocardiogram revealed that her ejection fraction (EF) is
30%, but it was 40% a month ago. What is EF, and what does the decreased number indicate?
Case Study Progress During the admission interview, the nurse makes a list of the medications M.G. took at home.
Nursing Assessment: Medications Taken at Home
Enalapril (Vasotec) 5 mg PO bid
Pioglitazone (Actos) 45 mg PO every morning
Furosemide (Lasix) 40 mg/day PO
Potassium chloride (K-Dur) 20 mEq/day PO
3. Which of these medications may have contributed to M.G.’s HF? Explain.
4. How do angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as enalapril (Vasotec), work to reduce HF? Select all that apply.
a. Cause systemic vasodilation b. Increase cardiac contractility c. Reduce preload and afterload d. Prevent the conversion of angiotensin I to
angiotensin II e. Block sympathetic nervous system stimulation to
the heart f. Promote the excretion of sodium and water in the
Case Study Progress After reviewing M.G.’s medications, the cardiologist writes the following medication orders.
Enalapril (Vasotec) 5 mg PO bid
Carvedilol (Coreg) 3.125 mg PO twice daily
500 mg twice daily
Furosemide (Lasix) 80 mg intravenous push (IVP) now, then 40 mg/day IVP
Potassium chloride (K- Dur)
20 mEq/day PO
5. What is the rationale for changing the route of the furosemide (Lasix)?
6. You give furosemide (Lasix) 80 mg IVP. Identify at least 4 parameters you would use to monitor the effectiveness of this medication.
7. What lab tests should be ordered for M.G. related to the order for furosemide (Lasix)? Select all that apply.
a. Sodium level b. Potassium level c. Magnesium level d. Coagulation studies e. Serum glucose level f. Complete blood count
8. What is the reason for ordering the beta blocker carvedilol? a. Increase urine output b. Cause peripheral vasodilation c. Increase the contractility of the heart d. Reduce cardiac stimulation from catecholamines
9. You assess M.G. for conditions that may be a
contraindication to carvedilol. Which condition, if present, may cause serious problems if she takes this medication?
a. Angina b. Asthma c. Glaucoma d. Hypertension
Case Study Progress One day later, M.G. has shown only slight improvement, and digoxin (Lanoxin) 125 mcg PO daily is added to her orders.
10. What is the mechanism of action of digoxin? a. Causes systemic vasodilation b. Increases cardiac contractility and cardiac output c. Blocks sympathetic nervous system stimulation to
the heart d. Promotes the excretion of sodium and water in the
renal tubules 11. Which findings from M.G.’s assessment would indicate an
increased possibility of digoxin toxicity? Explain your answer. a. Digoxin level 1.6 ng/mL (2.05 mmol/L) b. Serum sodium level of 139 mEq/L (138 mmol/L) c. Apical heart rate of 64 d. Serum potassium level of 2.2 mEq/L (2.2 mmol/L)
12. When preparing to give the digoxin, you notice that it is
available in milligrams (mg) not micrograms (mcg). Convert 125 mcg to mg.
13. After 2 days, M.G.’s symptoms improve with intravenous diuretics and digoxin. She is placed back on oral furosemide (Lasix) once her weight loss is deemed adequate for achievement of a euvolemic state. What will determine whether the oral dose will be adequate for discharge to be considered?
14. M.G. is ready for discharge. According to the mnemonic MAWDS, what key management concepts should be taught to prevent relapse and another admission?
15. After the teaching session, the nurse asks M.G. to “teach back” one important concept of care at home. Which statement by M.G. indicates a need for further education? Explain your answer.
a. “I will not add salt when I am cooking.”
b. “I will use a weekly pill calendar box to remind me to take my medicine.”
c. “I will weigh myself daily and tell the doctor at my next visit if I am gaining weight.”
d. “I will try to take a short walk around the block with my husband three times a week.”
Case Study Outcome After M.G. has been at home for 2 days, the STOP Heart Failure Nurse Navigator calls to ask about her progress. M.G. reports that her weight has not increased since she has been home and she is breathing more easily.
Case Study 2 Name _________________________________ Class/Group _____________________________ Date _____________
Scenario M.P. is a 65-year-old African American woman who comes to the clinic for a follow-up visit. She was diagnosed with hypertension (HTN) 2 months ago and was given a prescription for a thiazide diuretic but stopped taking it 2 weeks ago because “it made me dizzy and I kept getting up during the night to empty my bladder.” During today’s clinic visit, she expresses fear because her mother died of a stroke (cerebrovascular accident [CVA]) at M.P.’s age, and M.P. is afraid she will suffer the same fate. She states, “I’ve never smoked and I don’t drink, but I am so afraid of this high blood pressure.” You review the data from her past clinic visits.
Mother, died at age 65 years of CVA Father, died at age 67 years of myocardial infarction (MI) Sister, alive and well, age 62 years Brother, alive, age 70 years, has coronary artery disease (CAD),
HTN, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)
Patient Past History
Married for 45 years, 2 children, alive and well, 6 grandchildren Cholecystectomy, age 42 years Hysterectomy, age 48 years
Blood Pressure Assessments
January 2: 150/92 January 31: 156/94 (given prescription for hydrochlorothiazide
[HCTZ] 25 mg PO every morning) February 28: 140/90
1. According to the most recent guidelines from the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, M.P.’s blood pressure (BP) falls under which classification?
2. What could M.P. be doing that is causing her nocturia?
Case Study Progress During today’s visit, M.P.’s vital signs are as follows: BP: 162/102; P: 78; R: 16; T: 98.2°F (36.8 ° C). Her most recent basic metabolic panel (BMP) and fasting lipids are within normal limits. Her height is 5 ft, 4 in (163 cm), and she weighs 110 lb (50 kg). She tells you that she tries to go on walks but does not like to walk alone and so has done so only occasionally.
3. What risk factors does M.P. have that increase her risk for
Case Study Progress Because M.P.’s BP continues to be high, the provider decides to start another antihypertensive drug and recommends that she try again with the HCTZ, taken in the mornings.
4. According to the JNC 8 national guidelines, describe the drug therapy recommended for M.P. at this time.
5. M.P. goes on to ask whether there is anything else she should do to help with her HTN. She asks, “Do I need to lose weight?” Look up her height and weight for her age on a body mass index (BMI) chart. Is she considered overweight?
6. What nonpharmacologic lifestyle alteration measures might help M.P. control her BP? List 2 examples and explain.
Case Study Progress The provider decreases M.P.’s HCTZ dose to 12.5 mg PO daily and adds a prescription for benazepril (Lotensin) 5 mg daily. M.P. is instructed to return to the clinic in 1 week to have her blood work checked. She is instructed to monitor her BP at least twice a week and return for a medication management appointment in 1 month with her list of BP readings.
7. Why did the provider decrease the dose of the HCTZ? 8. You provide M.P. with education about the common side
effects of benazepril, which can include which of these? Select all that apply.
a. Cough b. Dizziness c. Headache d. Constipation e. Shortness of breath
9. It is sometimes difficult to remember whether one has
taken one’s medication. What techniques might you teach M.P. to help her remember to take her medicines each day? Name at least 2.
10. After the teaching session about her medicines, which statement by M.P. indicates a need for further instructions?
a. “I need to rise up slowly when I get out of bed or out of a chair.”
b. “I will leave the salt shaker off the table and not salt my food when I cook.”
c. “I will call if I feel very dizzy, weak, or short of breath while on this medicine.”
d. “It’s okay to skip a few doses if I am feeling bad as long as it’s just for a few days.”
11. Describe 3 priority problems that will guide M.P.’s nursing care.
Case Study Progress M.P. returns in 1 month for her medication management appointment. She tells you she is feeling fine and does not have any side effects from her new medication. Her BP, checked twice a week at the senior center, ranges from 132 to 136 systolic, and 78 to 82 diastolic.
12. When someone is taking HCTZ and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, such as benazepril, what lab test results would you expect to be monitored?
Laboratory Test Results (Fasting)
Potassium 3.6 mEq/L (3.6 mmol/L)
Sodium 138 mEq/L (138 mmol/L)
Chloride 100 mEq/L (100 mmol/L)
CO2 28 mEq/L (28 mmol/L)
Glucose 112 mEq/L (6.2 mmol/L)
Creatinine 0.7 mg/dL (61.9 mcmol/L)
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 18 mg/dL (6.4 mmol/L)
Magnesium 1.9 mEq/L (0.95 mmol/L)
13. What lab test results, if any, are of concern at this time? 14. You take M.P.’s BP and get 138/88. She asks whether these BP
readings are okay. On what do you base your response? 15. List at least 3 important ways you might help M.P. maintain
Case Study Progress M.P. tells you she was recently at a luncheon with her garden club and that most of those women take BP pills different from the ones she does. She asks why their pills are different shapes and colors.
16. How can you explain the difference to M.P.? 17. During the visit, you ask M.P., “When was your last eye
examination?” She answers, “I’m not sure, probably about 2 years ago. What does that have to do with my blood pressure?” What is your response?
Case Study Outcome M.P. comes in for a routine follow-up visit 3 months later. She continues to do well on her daily BP drug regimen, with average BP readings of 130/78. She participates in group walking program for senior citizens at the local mall. She admits she has not done as well with decreasing her salt intake but says she is trying. She visited an ophthalmologist last week and had no problems except for a slight cataract in one eye.
Case Study 3 Name _________________________________ Class/Group _____________________________ Date _____________
Scenario A.M. is a 52-year-old woman who has gained over 75 lbs (32 kg) over the past 30 years, after the birth of her 3 children. She has a sedentary job that requires sitting at a desk for most hours of the work day. When she is at home, she stays inside because she is afraid to walk by herself in her neighborhood. She lives alone, but her children live in the same city. She has a history of hypertension and states that she does not take her medications regularly. She came to the clinic today stating that she thinks she might have a urinary tract infection. Her weight is 255 lbs (102.5 kg). She is 5 feet, 4 inches tall (162.5 cm) and has a waist circumference of 41 inches (104 cm). Her abdomen is large, nontender, soft, and round. Her blood pressure is 160/104. You review fasting labs results that were drawn a week ago.
Glucose 170 mg/dL (9.4 mmol/L)
Total cholesterol 215 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L)
Triglycerides 267 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L)
HDL 60 mg/dL (1.56 mmol/L)
LDL 116 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L)
1. What is BMI? Calculate A.M.’s BMI and identify her classification based on the results.
2. Does A.M. have type 2 di
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