Management Planning Presentation
Imagine you are an executive for BP, and you are preparing a presentation for the board of directors about the organization’s direction.
Create a 10- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation, with speaker notes, in which you address the following:
· Evaluate the planning function of management as it relates to the organization’s goals and strategies. Use steps in the planning process outlined in the text.
· Analyze the influence that legal issues, ethics, and corporate social responsibility have had on management planning at BP. Provide at least one example for each.
· Analyze at least three factors that influence the company's strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning.
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
APPENDIX B APPENDIX B
Managing in Our Natural Environment BUSINESS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: CONFLICTING VIEWS Some people believe everyone wins when business tackles envi- ronmental issues. 1 Others disagree.
The Win-Win Mentality Business used to look at environ- mental issues as a no-win situation: You either help the envi- ronment and hurt your business, or help your business only at a cost to the environment. Fortunately, things have changed. “When Americans first demanded a cleanup of the environment during the early 1970s, corporations threw a tantrum. Their response ran the psychological gamut from denial to hostility, defiance, obstinacy, and fear. But today, when it comes to green issues, many U.S. companies have turned from rebellious under- achievers to active problem solvers.” 2 Table B.1 gives just a few examples of things U.S. corporations are doing to help solve environmental problems.
The Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 helped increase aware- ness of environmental issues. This led to the Kyoto Protocol, an international effort to control global warming that included an unsuccessful meeting in the Hague in November 2000. 3 “There has been an evolution of most groups—whether industry, gov- ernments, or nongovernmental organizations—toward a recog- nition that everyone plays a part in reaching a solution.” 4
Being “green” is potentially a catalyst for innovation, new market opportunities, and wealth creation. Advocates believe that this is truly a win-win situation; actions can be taken that benefit both business and the environment. For example, Procter & Gamble in a span of five years reduced disposable wastes by over 50 percent while increasing sales by 25 percent. 5 Win-win companies will come out ahead of those companies that have an us-versus-them, we-can’t-afford-to-protect-the-environment mentality.
Is the easy part over? 6 Companies have found a lot of easy- to-harvest, “low-hanging fruit”—that is, overly costly practices that were made environmentally friendlier and that saved money at the same time. Many big companies have made these easy changes, and reaped benefits from them. Many small companies still have such low-hanging fruit to harvest, 7 and plenty remains to be done.
The Dissenting View The critics of environmentalism in business are vocal. Some economists maintain that not a single empirical analysis supports the “free lunch view” that spending money on environmental problems provides full payback to the firm. 8 Skepticism should continue, they say; the belief that every- one will come out a winner is naive.
What really upsets many businesspeople is the financial cost of complying with environmental regulations. 9 Consider a few examples:
• GM spent $1.3 billion to comply with California requirements that 10 percent of the cars sold there be emission-free. European automakers spent $7 billion to install pollution- control equipment in all new cars during a five-year period.
• At Bayer, 20 percent of manufacturing costs were for the environment. This is approximately the same amount spent for labor.
• The Clean Air Act alone was expected to cost U.S. petro- leum refiners $37 billion, more than the book value of the entire industry.
• California’s tough laws are a major reason why manufactur- ers moved to Arkansas or Nevada.
In industries like chemicals and petroleum, environmental reg- ulations were once considered a threat to their very survival. 10
Balance A more balanced view is that business must weigh the environmental benefits of an action against value destruc- tion. The advice here is: Don’t obstruct progress, but pick your environmental initiatives carefully. Compliance and remediation efforts will protect, but not increase, shareholder value. 11 And it is shareholder value, rather than compliance, emissions, or costs, that should be the focus of objective cost-benefit analyses. Such an approach is environmentally sound but also hard-headed in a business sense, and is the one approach that is truly sustain- able over the long term.
Johan Piet maintains, “Only win-win companies will survive, but that does not mean that all win-win ideas will be successful.” 12 In other words, rigorous analysis is essential. Thus, some compa- nies maintain continuous improvement in environmental perfor- mance, but fund only projects that meet financial objectives.
Most people understand that business has the resources and the competence to bring about constructive change, and that this creates great opportunity—if well managed—for both busi- ness and the environment.
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190 Part Two Planning: Delivering Strategic Value
TABLE B.1 What Companies Are Doing to Enhance the Environment
Toyota established an “ecotechnologies” division both for regulatory compliance and to shape corporate direction, including the development of hybrid electric-combustion automobiles.
Interface Corporation’s new Shanghai carpet factory circulates liquid through a standard pumping loop like those used in most industries. But simply by using fatter pipes and short, straight pipes instead of long and crooked pipes, it cut the power requirements by 92 percent.
Xerox used “zero-waste-to-landfill” engineering to develop a new remanufacturable copier. AT&T cut paper costs by 15 percent by setting defaults on copiers and printers to double-sided mode.
Electrolux uses more environmentally friendly water- based and powder paints instead of solvent-based paints, and introduced the first refrigerators and freezers free of chlorofluorocarbons.
Many chemical and pharmaceutical companies, including Novo Nordisk and Empresas La Moderna, are exploring “green chemistry” and seeking biological substitutes for synthetic materials.
Anheuser-Busch saved 21 million pounds of metal a year by reducing its beer-can rims by 1/8 of an inch (without reducing its contents).
Nissan enlisted a group of ecologists, energy experts, and science writers to brainstorm about how an environmentally responsible car company might behave. Among the ideas: to produce automobiles that snap together into electrically powered trains for long trips and then detach for the dispersion to final destinations.
SOURCES: P. M. Senge and G. Carstedt, “Innovating Our Way to the Next Industrial Revolution,” Sloan Management Review, Winter 2001, pp. 24–38; M. P. Polonsky and P. J. Rosenberger III, “Reevaluating Green Marketing: A Strategic Approach,” Business Horizons, September–October, 2001, pp. 21–30; C. Garfield, Second to None: How Our Smartest Companies Put People First (Burr Ridge, IL; Business One-Irwin, 1992); H. Bradbury and J. A. Clair, “Promoting Sustainable Organizations with Sweden’s Natural Step,” Academy of Management Executive, November 1999, pp. 63–74; A. Loving, L. Hunter Lovins, and P. Hawken, “A Road Map for Natural Capitalism,” Harvard Business Review, May–June 1999, pp. 145–58; P. Hawken, A. Lovings, and L. Hunter Lovins, Natural Capitalism (Boston: Little Brown, 1999); and S. L. Hart and M. B. Milstein, “Global Sustainability and the Creative Destruction of Industries,” Sloan Management Review, Fall 1999, pp. 23–32.
TABLE B.2 Some U.S Environmental Laws
Superfund [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)]: Establishes potential liability for any person or organization responsible for creating an environmental health hazard. Individuals may be prosecuted, fined, or taxed to fund cleanup.
Clean Water Act [Federal Water Pollution Control Act]: Regulates all discharges into surface waters, and affects the construction and performance of sewer systems. The Safe Drinking Water Act similarly protects groundwaters.
Clean Air Act: Regulates the emission into the air of any substance that affects air quality, including nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide.
Community Response and Right-to-Know Act: Mandates that all facilities producing, transporting, storing, using, or releasing hazardous substances provide full information to local and state authorities and maintain emergency-action plans.
Federal Hazardous Substances Act: Regulates hazards to health and safety associated with consumer products. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has the right to recall hazardous products.
Hazardous Materials Transportation Act: Regulates the packaging, marketing, and labeling of shipments of flammable, toxic, and radioactive materials.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Extends to small-quantity generators the laws regulating generation, treatment, and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes.
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act: Establishes environmental standards for all surface-mining operations.
Toxic Substances Control Act: Addresses the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, and disposal of dangerous chemical substances and mixtures.
SOURCE: Dennis C. Kinlaw, Competitive and Green: Sustainable Performance in the Environmental Age (Amsterdam: Pfeiffer & Co., 1993). Reprinted by permission of the author.
WHY MANAGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT IN MIND? Business is turning its full attention to environmental issues for many reasons, including legal compliance, cost effectiveness, competitive advantage, public opinion, and long-term thinking.
Legal Compliance Table B.2 shows just some of the most important U.S. environmental laws. Government regulations and liability for damages provide strong economic incentives to comply with environmental guidelines. Most industries already have made environmental protection regulation and liability an
integral part of their business planning. 13 The U.S. Justice Depart- ment has handed out tough prison sentences to executives whose companies violate hazardous-waste requirements.
Some businesspeople consider the regulations to be too rigid, inflexible, and unfair. In response to this concern, regulatory reform may become more creative. The Aspen Institute Series on the Environment in the Twenty-First Century is trying to increase the cost-effectiveness of compliance measures through more flexibility in meeting standards and relying on market- based incentives. Such mechanisms, including tradable permits, pollution charges, and deposit refund systems, provide positive financial incentives for good environmental performance. 14
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and low key, but much pressure is exerted by environmental organizations, aroused citizen groups, societies and associations, international codes of conduct, and environmentally conscious investors. 20
Another important reason for paying attention to environ- mental impact is TRI, the Toxic Release Inventory. 21 Starting in 1986, the EPA required all the plants of approximately 10,000 U.S. manufacturers to report annual releases of 317 toxic chemi- cals into the air, ground, and water. The substances include freon, PCBs, asbestos, and lead compounds. Hundreds of others have been added to the list. The releases are not necessarily illegal, but they provide the public with an annual environmental bench- mark. TRI provides a powerful incentive to reduce emissions.
Finally, it is useful to remember that companies recover very slowly in public opinion from the impact of an environmental disaster. Adverse public opinion may affect sales as well as the firm’s ability to attract and retain talented people. You can see why companies like P&G consider concern for the environment a consumer need, making it a basic and critical business issue.
Long-Term Thinking Long-term thinking about resources helps business leaders understand the nature of their responsi- bilities with regard to environmental concerns. For example, you read about sustainable growth in the chapter. 22 Economic argu- ments and the tragedy of the commons also highlight the need for long-term thinking.
Economic arguments In Chapter 3, we discussed long-term versus short-term decision making. We stated that it is common for managers to succumb to short-term pressure for profits and to avoid spending now when the potential payoff is years down the road. In addition, some economists maintain that it is the responsibility of management to maximize returns for share- holders, implying the preeminence of the short-term profit goal.
But other economists argue that such a strategy caters to immediate profit maximization for stock speculators and neglects serious investors who are with the company for the long haul. Attention to environmental issues enhances the organization’s long-term viability because the goal is the long-term creation of wealth for the patient, serious investors in the company 23 —not to mention the future state of our planet and the new genera- tions who will inhabit it.
The tragedy of the commons In a classic article in Science, Garrett Hardin described a situation that applies to all business decisions and social concerns regarding scarce resources like clean water, air, and land. 24 Throughout human history, a com- mons was a tract of land shared by communities of people on which they grazed their animals. A commons has limited car- rying capacity, or the ability to sustain a population, because it is a finite resource. For individual herders, short-term inter- est lies in adding as many animals to the commons as they can. But problems develop as more herders add more animals to graze the commons. This leads to tragedy: As each herder acts in his short-term interest, the long-run impact is the destruction of the commons. The solution is to make choices according to long-run rather than short-run consequences.
In many ways, we are witnessing this tragedy of the com- mons. Carrying capacities are shrinking as precious resources,
Cost Effectiveness Environmentally conscious strategies can be cost-effective. 15 In the short run, company after company is realizing cost savings from repackaging, recycling, and other approaches. Union Carbide faced costs of $30 a ton for dis- posal of solid wastes and $2,000 a ton for disposal of hazardous wastes. By recycling, reclaiming, or selling its waste, it avoided $8.5 million in costs and generated $3.5 million in income during a six-month period. Dow Chemical launched a 10-year program to improve its environmental, health, and safety performance worldwide. Dow projected savings of $1.8 billion over the 10-year period. 16
Environmentally conscious strategies offer long-run cost advantages as well. Companies that are functioning barely within legal limits today may incur big costs—being forced to pay dam- ages or upgrade technologies and practices—when laws change down the road.
A few of the other cost savings include fines, cleanups, and litigation; lower raw materials costs; reduced energy use; less expensive waste handling and disposal; lower insurance rates; and possibly higher interest rates.
Competitive Advantage Corporations gain a competitive advan tage by channeling their environmental concerns into entre- preneurial opportunities and by producing higher-quality prod- ucts that meet consumer demand. Business opportunities abound in pollution protection equipment and processes, waste cleanup, low-water-use plumbing, new lightbulb technology, and market- ing of environmentally safe products like biodegradable plastics. With new pools of venture capital, government funding, and spe- cialized investment funds available, environmental technology has become a major sector of the venture-capital industry. 17
In addition, companies that fail to innovate in this area will be at a competitive disadvantage. Environmental protection is not only a universal need; it is also a major export industry. U.S. trade suffered as other countries—notably Germany—took the lead in patenting and exporting anti–air pollution and other environmental technologies. If the United States does not pro- duce innovative, competitive new technologies, it will forsake a growth industry and see most of its domestic spending for envi- ronmental protection go to imports. 18
In short, competitive advantage can be gained by maintaining market share with old customers, and by creating new products for new market opportunities. And if you are an environmental leader, you may set the standards for future regulations—regu- lations that you are prepared to meet, while your competitors are not.
Public Opinion The majority of the U.S. population believes business must clean up; few people think it is doing its job well. Gallup surveys show that more than 80 percent of U.S. con- sumers consider environmentalism in making purchases. An international survey of 22 countries found that majorities in 20 countries gave priority to environmental protection even at the risk of slowing economic growth. Consumers seem to have reached the point of routinely expecting companies to come up with environmentally friendly alternatives to current products and practices. 19
Companies also receive pressure from local communities and from their own employees. Sometimes the pressure is informal
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192 Part Two Planning: Delivering Strategic Value
is conservation. The conservation movement is anthropocen- tric (human centered), technologically optimistic, and concerned chiefly with the efficient use of resources. The movement seeks to avoid waste, promote the rational and efficient use of natural resources, and maximize long-term yields, especially of renew- able resources.
The environmental movement, in contrast, historically has posed dilemmas for business management. Following the lead of early thinkers like George Perkins Marsh (1801–1882), it has shown that the unintended negative effects of human eco- nomic activities on the environment often are greater than the benefits. For example, there are links between forest cutting and soil erosion and between the draining of marshes and lakes and the decline of animal life.
Other early environmentalists, such as John Muir (1838–1914) and Aldo Leopold (1886–1948), argued that humans are not above nature but a part of it. Nature is not for humans to subdue but is sacred and should be preserved not simply for economic use but for its own sake—and for what people can learn from it.
Science and the Environment Rachel Carson’s 1962 best- selling book, The Silent Spring, helped ignite the modern environ- mental movement by alerting the public to the dangers of unre- stricted pesticide use. 27 Carson brought together the findings of toxicology, ecology, and epidemiology in a form accessible to the public. Blending scientific, moral, and political arguments, she connected environmental politics and values with scientific knowledge.
Barry Commoner’s Science and Survival (1963) continued in this vein. Commoner expanded the scope of ecology to include everything in the physical, chemical, biological, social, politi- cal, economic, and philosophical worlds. 28 He argued that all of these elements fit together, and have to be understood as a whole. According to Commoner, the symptoms of environ- mental problems are in the biological world, but their source lies in economic and political organizations.
Economics and the Environment Economists promote growth for many reasons: to restore the balance of payments, to make nations more competitive, to create jobs, to reduce the deficit, to provide for the elderly and the sick, and to reduce poverty. Environmentalists criticize economics for its notions of efficiency and its emphasis on economic growth. 29 For example, environmentalists argue that economists do not adequately con- sider the unintended side effects of efficiency. Environmentalists hold that economists need to supplement estimates of the eco- nomic costs and benefits of growth with estimates of other fac- tors that historically were not measured in economic terms. 30
Economists and public policy analysts argue that the benefits of eliminating risk to the environment and to people must be bal- anced against the costs. Reducing risk involves determining how effective the proposed methods of reduction are likely to be and how much they will cost. There are many ways to consider cost factors. Analysts can perform cost-effectiveness analyses, in which they attempt to figure out how to achieve a given goal with limited resources, or they can conduct more formal risk- benefit and cost-benefit analyses, in which they quantify both the benefits and the costs of risk reduction. 31
water chief among them, become scarcer. Inevitably, conflict arises—and solutions are urgently needed.
The Environmental Movement The 1990s were labeled the “earth decade” when a “new environmentalism” with new fea- tures emerged. 25 For example, proponents of the new envi- ronmentalism asked companies to reduce their wastes, use resources prudently, market safe products, and take responsi- bility for past damages. These requests were formalized in the CERES principles (see Table B.3 ).
The new environmentalism combined many diverse view- points, but initially it did not blend easily with traditional business values. Some of the key aspects of this philosophy are noted in the following discussion of the history of the movement. 26
Conservation and Environmentalism A strand of environ- mental philosophy that is not at odds with business management
TABLE B.3 The CERES Principles
Scie sell men stri of t to t she kno
this eve cal, of t a w men lies
Eco gro to the pov effic env side hold nom tors
of e anc effe and cos in w with ben b
Protection of the biosphere: Minimize the release of pollutants that may cause environmental damage.
Sustainable use of natural resources: Conserve nonrenewable resources through efficient use and careful planning.
Reduction and disposal of waste: Minimize the creation of waste, especially hazardous waste, and dispose of such materials in a safe, responsible manner.
Wise use of energy: Make every effort to use environmentally safe and sustainable energy sources to meet operating requirements.
Risk reduction: Diminish environmental, health, and safety risks to employees.
Marketing of safe products and services: Sell products that minimize adverse environmental impact and are safe for consumers.
Damage compensation: Accept responsibility for any harm the company causes the environment; conduct bioremediation; and compensate affected parties.
Disclosure of environmental incidents: Public dissemination of accidents relating to operations that harm the environment or pose health or safety risks.
Environmental directors: Appoint at least one board member who is qualified to represent environmental interests; create a position of vice president for environmental affairs.
Assessment and annual audit: Produce and publicize each year a self-evaluation of progress toward implementing the principles and meeting all applicable laws and regulations worldwide. Environmental audits will also be produced annually and distributed to the public.
SOURCES: Chemical Week, September 20, 1989, copyright permission granted by Chemical Week magazine. CERES Coalition Handbook.
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Ethics and Corporate Responsibility Chapter 5 193
tally conscious. Italy, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, and Greece are in the early stages of developing environmental policies. Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and former East Germany are the most polluted of the world’s industrialized nations. 35
U.S. companies need to realize that there is a large growth market in western Europe for environmentally “friendly” prod- ucts. U.S. managers also need to be fully aware of the envi- ronmental movement in western Europe. Environmentalists in Europe have been successful in halting many projects. 36 China has been paying a high ecological price for its rapid economic growth. But the government has begun recognizing the problem and is creating some antipollution laws. 37
Industries that pollute or make polluting products will have to adjust to the new reality, and companies selling products in certain parts of the world must take into account a grow- ing consumer consciousness about environmental protection. Manufacturers may even be legally required to take products and packaging back from customers after use, to recycle or dis- pose of. In order to meet these requirements in Germany, and be prepared for similar demands in other countries, Hewlett- Packard redesigned its office-machine packaging worldwide.
WHAT MANAGERS CAN DO To be truly “green”—that is, a cutting-edge company with respect to environmental concerns—legal compliance is not enough. Pro- gressive companies stay abreast and ahead of the laws by going beyond marginal compliance and anticipating future requirements and needs. 38 But companies can go further still by experiment- ing continually with innovations that protect the environment. McDonald’s, for example, conducted tests and pilot projects in composting food scraps and in offering refillable coffee mugs and starch-based (biodegradable) cutlery. 39
Systems Thinking The first thing managers can do to better understand environmental issues in their companies is to engage in systems thinking. Environmental considerations relate to the organization’s inputs, processes, and outputs. 40 Inputs include raw materials and energy. Environmental pressures are causing prices of some raw materials, such as metals, to rise. This greatly increases the costs of production. Higher energy costs are caus- ing firms to switch to more fuel-efficient sources.
Firms are considering new processes or methods of produc- tion that will reduce water pollution, air pollution, noise and vibration, and waste. They are incorporating technologies that sample and monitor (control) these by-products of business processes. Some chemical plants have a computerized system that flashes warnings when a maximum allowable pollution level is soon to be reached. Many companies keep only minimal stocks of hazardous materials, making serious accidents less likely.
Outputs have environmental impact, whether the products themselves or the waste or by-products of processes. To reduce the impact of its outputs, Herman Miller recycles or reuses nearly all waste from the manufacturing process. It sells fabric scraps to the auto industry, leather trim to luggage makers, and vinyl to stereo and auto manufacturers. It buys back its old furniture, refurbishes it, and resells it. Its corporatewide goal is to send zero waste to landfills. Environmental manager Paul Murray says, “There is never an acceptable level of waste at Miller. There are always new things we can learn.” 41
Qualitative Judgments in Cost-Benefit Analysis Formal, quantitative approaches to balancing costs and benefits do not eliminate the need for qualitative judgments. For example, how does one assess the value of a magnificent vista obscured by air pollution? What is the loss to society if a particular genetic strain of grass or animal species becomes extinct? How does one assess the lost opportunity costs of spending vast amounts of money on air pollution that could have been spent on produc- tivity enhancement and global competitiveness?
Fairness cannot be ignored when doing cost-benefit analysis. 32 For example, the costs of air pollution reduction may have to be borne disproportionately by the poor in the form of higher gaso- line and automobile prices. Intergenerational fairness also plays a role. 33 Future generations have no representatives in the current market and political processes. To what extent should the cur- rent generation hold back on its own consumption for the sake of posterity? This question is particularly poignant because few people in the world today are well off. To ask the poor to reduce their life’s chances for the sake of a generation yet to come is asking for a great sacrifice.
International Perspectives Environmental problems present a different face in various countries and regions of the world. The United States and Great Britain lag behind Germany and Japan in mandated emissions standards. 34 In Europe, the Dutch, the Germans, and the Danes are among the most environmen-
The environmental movement is a worldwide phenomenon. The “Greens,” pictured here demonstrating in LePuy, France, are an important growing European political party.
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194 Part Two Planning: Delivering Strategic Value
environmental audits. 44 The Community Environmental Responsibility …
“ ” The business executive is by profession a decision maker. Uncertainty is his opponent. Overcoming it is his mission.
— John McDonald
Managerial Decision Making
After studying Chapter 3, you will be
1 Describe the kinds of decisions you will face as a manager. p. 86
2 Summarize the steps in making “rational” decisions. p. 89
3 Recognize the pitfalls you should avoid when making decisions. p. 95
4 Evaluate the pros and cons of using a group to make decisions. p. 98
5 Identify procedures to use in leading a decision-making group. p. 100
6 Explain how to encourage creative decisions. p. 102
7 Discuss the processes by which decisions are made in organizations. p. 104
8 Describe how to make decisions in a crisis. p. 105
Characteristics of Managerial Decisions
Lack of Structure Uncertainty and Risk Conflict
The Stages of Decision Making
Identifying and Diagnosing the Problem Generating Alternative Solutions Evaluating Alternatives Making the Choice Implementing the Decision Evaluating the Decision
The Best Decision
Barriers to Effective Decision Making
Psychological Biases Time Pressures Social Realities
Decision Making in Groups
Potential Advantages of Using a Group Potential Problems of Using a Group
Managing Group Decision Making
Leadership Style Construc
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