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© John Bratton 2020
First published 2020
Editorial Arrangement © John Bratton 2020
Foreword © Paul Gray 2020. Introduction © John Bratton 2020. Chapter 1 © John Bratton 2020. Chapter 2 © John Bratton,
George Boak 2020. Chapter 3 © Joanne Murphy, John Bratton 2020. Chapter 4 © David Denham, John Bratton 2020. Chapter 5 © Roslyn Larkin, John Burgess, Alan Montague 2020. Chapter 6
© John Bratton 2020. Chapter 7 © John Bratton 2020. Chapter 8 © John Bratton 2020. Chapter 9 © John Bratton 2020. Chapter 10
© Kirsteen Grant 2020. Chapter 11 © Bernadette Scott 2020. Chapter 12 © Peter Watt, George Boak, Jeff Gold 2020. Chapter
13 © John Bratton, Helen Francis 2020. Chapter 14 © Lois Farquharson 2020. Chapter 15 © Colin Lindsay 2020. Chapter 16 © Andrew Bratton 2020. Chapter 17 © Markku Sotarauta 2020.
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The honest man, though e’er sae poor,
Is king o’ men for a’ that!
If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.
Praise for Organizational Leadership
‘Organizational Leadership brings together a number of leading scholars to provide a comprehensive perspective on leadership. This text offers an accessible exploration of different aspects of leadership and the many challenges and issues facing contemporary leaders. By analysing and critiquing different leadership theories and practices, Organizational Leadership encourages students to take a critical approach to effectively evaluate how leaders operate.’
Jennifer Robertson, Associate Professor of Human Resource Management, Western University, Canada
‘A book that covers all facets of leadership, in theory and in practice, with a critical approach that will benefit students and practitioners. Its comprehensive coverage of contemporary and timely leadership themes make it a valuable resource for effective people management in today’s diverse and complex workplaces.’
Lori Rilkoff, Human Resources and Safety Director, City of Kamloops, Canada
Summary of Contents 1. Your Guide to Using this Book 2. About the Contributors 3. Acknowledgements 4. List of Figures 5. List of Tables 6. List of Videos 7. Foreword 8. Introduction 9. Part I Contextualizing Leadership
1. 1 The Nature of Leadership 2. 2 Strategic Management, Innovation and Leadership 3. 3 Power and Leadership 4. 4 Culture and Leadership 5. 5 Ethics and Leadership
10. Part II Leadership Theories 1. 6 Trait, Behaviour and Contingency Theories of
Leadership 2. 7 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership 3. 8 Relational and Distributed Theories of Leadership
11. Part III Managing People and Leadership 1. 9 Human Resource Management and Leadership 2. 10 Talent Management and Leadership 3. 11 Performance Management and Leadership 4. 12 Leadership Development
12. Part IV Contemporary Leadership 1. 13 Followers, Communication and Leadership 2. 14 Gender and Leadership 3. 15 Leadership in Public Sector Organizations 4. 16 Leading Pro-Environmental Change 5. 17 Leadership for Urban and Regional Innovation
13. Bibliography 14. Index
Detailed Contents Your Guide to Using this Book
In the book you’ll find On the website you’ll find For lecturers
About the Contributors Acknowledgements List of Figures List of Tables List of Videos Foreword Introduction
Objectives of this book A framework for studying leadership The organization of this book
Part I Contextualizing Leadership 1 The Nature of Leadership
Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction Defining leadership Leadership and management Mapping the changing study of leadership Critical leadership studies The employment relationship Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
2 Strategic Management, Innovation and Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction Strategic management A framework for studying strategy and leadership The nature of innovation The external and internal contexts driving innovation Leaders’ roles in innovation processes Evaluation and criticism
Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
3 Power and Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction Conceptualizing power Different perspectives on power Power and management Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
4 Culture and Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of national cultures Understanding organizational culture Perspectives on organizational culture Organizational culture, climate and leadership Evaluation and criticism Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
5 Ethics and Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of ethical leadership Philosophical approaches to ethical leadership Dimensions of ethical leadership Organizations behaving badly: failures in ethical leadership Context, the rhetoric and reality Whistleblowing: is it responsible behaviour? Millennial leadership, digitization and artificial intelligence Conclusion Chapter review questions
Further reading Part II Leadership Theories
6 Trait, Behaviour and Contingency Theories of Leadership
Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction Leader traits and attributes Leader behaviour and styles Contingency theories of leadership Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
7 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of charismatic leadership Neo-theories of charismatic leadership Transformational leadership Critiquing charismatic and transformational leadership Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
8 Relational and Distributed Theories of Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction Classical relational studies Contemporary theories of relational leadership Positivist dyadic relational perspectives Social constructionist group-level relational perspectives The growth of distributed leadership Practising distributed and shared leadership Evaluation and criticism Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
Part III Managing People and Leadership 9 Human Resource Management and Leadership
Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of human resource management Scope and functions of human resource management Theorizing human resource management Human resource management and leadership Critiquing the human resource management discourse Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
10 Talent Management and Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of talent and talent management Leading and managing talent The influence of ‘talented followership’ on co- producing leadership Collaborative talent management Critiquing the talent management debate Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
11 Performance Management and Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature and purpose of performance management Determinants of employee and organizational performance Historical milestones in the development of performance management The performance management appraisal process Modelling leadership and performance
Problems of methodology and theory Criticism of individual performance appraisals Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
12 Leadership Development Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction Leader and leadership development in organizations Reflection and critical thinking for leadership development What capabilities should leaders develop? Approaches to leaders’ development Approaches to the development of leadership in others Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
Part IV Contemporary Leadership 13 Followers, Communication and Leadership
Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of followership Follower behaviour and personality Follower behaviour and motivation Dialogic conversation and leadership Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
14 Gender and Leadership Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of diversity The glass ceiling, the labyrinth and the glass cliff Gender pay gap Women in global leadership Millennial women and leadership
Future challenges for practices of gender diversity and inclusion Supporting women to lead Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
15 Leadership in Public Sector Organizations Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction Problematizing public sector leadership Distinctive challenges associated with public sector leadership The new public management and the rise of transformational leadership Beyond transformational leadership: shared and distributed leadership Challenges of distributed leadership in public sector organizations Leadership and performance in public sector organizations Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
16 Leading Pro-Environmental Change Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of environmental sustainability Employees’ pro-environmental behaviours and environmental management systems Environmental leadership, organizational change and culture Creating a sustainable workplace through human resource practices Employee voice in environmental sustainability Critical perspectives on corporate-oriented sustainability Conclusion Chapter review questions
Further reading 17 Leadership for Urban and Regional Innovation
Chapter outline Learning outcomes Introduction The nature of place-based leadership for urban and regional innovation Regional innovation systems and strategies Placed-based leadership Place-based leaders, knowledge producers and decision makers Generative leadership – a missing link in transformative efforts Criticism and exemplary research for place-based leadership Conclusion Chapter review questions Further reading
Your guide to using this book
Organizational Leadership has been developed with a number of print and online features to help you succeed in your course.
In the Book You’ll Find:
Leadership in Action boxes Short case studies demonstrate leadership approaches and concepts in practice and introduce you to examples from around the world.
Critical Insight boxes Contemporary debates and examples are analysed through different viewpoints and help you to develop your critical thinking skills.
Pause and Reflect boxes Short activities check your understanding as you progress through each chapter.
Chapter Review Questions End-of-chapter questions test your knowledge and help you to identify areas for revision.
Assignment Tasks Longer activities at the end of each chapter develop your research, analytical and problem-solving skills.
Further Reading Suggested book chapters and journal articles help you to build your bibliography for assignments.
Case Study An extended case study in each chapter provides a deeper insight into how key leadership issues and ideas manifest in practice.
On the Website You’ll Find:
Watch video conversations with leaders sharing insights into the reality of leadership practice across a diverse range of organizations. Find out about:
how leaders can incorporate social good into their business models leading teams on the front lines in Iraq challenges and opportunities for women in leadership roles fostering a shared organizational culture in a multinational enterprise collective leadership in the NHS and much more!
See the full list of videos on pages XXIX–XXX.
Case Studies Read SAGE Business Cases to find out about leadership in practice around the world:
Sydney Brian-Peters: A Case Study in Gender and Leadership Issues Transformational Leadership—Steve Jobs Now What? Now Who? A Mexican Small Family Business in Transition Leader–Member Exchange Theory: Barack Obama The BMW Group’s Journey to Leadership in Sustainable Development Practice
Further Reading Access SAGE journal articles to delve deeper into the field of leadership and prepare for assignments.
Online resources can be accessed at https://study.sagepub.com/bratton. See inside the front cover of this book for your access code.
For Lecturers A selection of tried and tested teaching resources have been developed to accompany this text and support your course. Visit https://study.sagepub.com/bratton to set up or use your instructor login and access:
A video teaching guide with notes and questions to help you make the most of the video conversations in class. PowerPoint slides that can be adapted and edited to suit your own teaching needs. Testbank questions offering a variety of multiple choice questions to use with your students. SAGE business cases to use in class or as material for homework.
All resources have been designed and formatted to upload easily into your LMS or VLE. Visit https://study.sagepub.com/bratton for more details.
About the Contributors
John Bratton holds visiting professorships at both Strathclyde University, Glasgow, and at Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland. He has more than 30 years’ experience of teaching a range of organizational behaviour, leadership and HRM courses, at both undergraduate and graduate levels, mainly in the UK and Canada, but also in Finland and Singapore. His research interests traverse the sociology of work and management. In addition to editing this book, John is author of Japanization at Work: Managerial Studies in the 1990s; co-author of Workplace Learning: A Critical Introduction (2004); co-author of Organizational Leadership (with Keith Grint and Debra Nelson) (2005); co-author of Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice (with Jeff Gold) (2017), now in its sixth edition; co-author of Capitalism and Classical Social Theory (with David Denham) (2019), now in its third edition, and author of Work and Organizational Behaviour (2020), now in its fourth edition.
George Boak is a Senior Lecturer in Leadership and Innovation at York St John University. He has worked on aspects of individual and organizational development for 30 years, with managers and professionals from a wide range of public sector and large private sector companies in manufacturing, banking and energy, as well as with smaller companies. He currently works with experienced managers and professionals on York Business School’s executive MBA programmes.
John Burgess is Professor of Human Resource Management at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. His recent research has included human capacity development in Asia, employment conditions in the aged care sector, HRM programmes of multinational enterprises, graduate work readiness and transitional labour markets.
is a Lecturer in Human Resource Management at Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh. He previously worked as a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) Associate in Business Process Improvement and Knowledge Management, at the University of Strathclyde, in a Microsoft technology consultancy company. His research interests include innovative and sustainable workplaces, change management and employee voice. His current research centres on knowledge management and the application of lean and agile practices in small and medium-sized enterprises.
David Denham, prior to his retirement, was Senior Lecturer in Sociology at Wolverhampton University, where he has subsequently been, until 2018, Honorary Research Fellow within the Faculty of Social Sciences. He has taught a wide variety of sociology courses over a career of 35 years. David has published articles on the sociology of law, criminology, and the sociology of sport, and is co-author with Lorraine Wolhunter and Neil Olley of Victimology: Victimization and Victim’s Rights and co- author (with John Bratton) of Capitalism and Classical Social Theory (3rd edn) (2019).
Lois Farquharson is the Deputy Dean (Education & Professional Practice) in The Faculty of Management and The Business School at Bournemouth University. As an experienced leader, she demonstrates a strong scholarly and practice-based understanding of delivering effective diversity and inclusion in dynamic organizational contexts. Her areas of research and knowledge exchange work are focused on leadership practice, change management, socio-emotional intelligence and good practice HRM. She is also a certified facilitator for the Strengths Deployment Inventory (SDi), the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi) and Appreciative Inquiry (AI).
Helen Francis is Professor of People and Organization at Edinburgh Napier Business School and holds honorary professorships at St Andrews University and at the University of Strathclyde. Helen started her career in personnel management and industrial relations. When she moved into academia she completed a PhD in the role of language and strategic
change. She has played key roles in research, teaching and commercial developments in public, private and not-for profit sectors. Helen has published in a wide range of academic and practitioner journals/textbooks, calling for the pursuit of more ‘balanced’ HR agendas. She is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Jeff Gold is Professor of Organization Learning at York and Leeds Business Schools. He is a strong advocate of the need for actionable knowledge that is rigorously developed but relevant for practice. He has designed and delivered a wide range of seminars, programmes and workshops on talent management and development, change, strategic learning, futures and foresight, management and leadership development, with a particular emphasis on participation and distribution. He has worked closely with organizations such as Skipton Building Society, Hallmark Cards, the NHS, the Police Service, Leeds Bradford Boiler Company and a host of others. He is the co-author of CIPD’s Leadership and Management Development (with Richard Thorpe and Alan Mumford), The Gower Handbook of Leadership and Management Development (with Richard Thorpe and Alan Mumford), Human Resource Development (with Julie Beardwell, Paul Iles, Rick Holden and Jim Stewart) and Human Resource Management (with John Bratton), both published by Palgrave.
Kirsteen Grant is Associate Professor of Work and Employment at Edinburgh Napier University. Kirsteen draws on complementary backgrounds in organizational practice and academia. She has worked extensively in areas of organizational, professional, leadership and talent development. Her research interests centre on professional, responsible and precarious work; the changing nature and expectations of work; leadership; talent management; and workplace skills utilization. Kirsteen is passionate about bridging the gap between academic research and professional practice. She is a Chartered Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) and Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (HEA).
Roslyn Larkin is a Human Resource Management/Employment Relations lecturer at the University of Newcastle, Australia. Current research interests include ethical leadership, knowledge management in clusters, ethical AI across industry and university graduate destinations.
Colin Lindsay is Professor of Work and Employment Studies at the University of Strathclyde, Scotland. He has published more than 50 books and peer-reviewed articles on public policy and management and public governance issues. At the University of Strathclyde, he teaches at undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral level on public management and employment studies.
Alan Montague is Programme Director for the Masters of Human Resource Management at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. Alan’s research, experience and publications are linked to skill/vocational shortages, government policies relating to the links between education and industry, and employment/education programme policy development. Leadership and workforce planning, critical commentary on corporate ethics and the impact of artificial intelligence on organizations and jobs are the focus of more recent work.
Joanne Murphy is a Senior Lecturer in Queen’s University Management School, Belfast, and Academic Director of Queen’s University William J. Clinton Leadership Institute. Her research focuses on how public, private and third-sector organizations, situated in environments of violent conflict, manage and function during violence and can contribute to building peace. She has published widely on issues of change, leadership and extreme contexts. Her new monograph, Managing in Conflict and Transition, is due for publication in 2020.
Bernadette Scott is a Senior Lecturer at Glasgow School for Business and Society (Glasgow Caledonian University). In an academic career spanning 28 years, she has designed and led many business programmes at home and overseas and is currently working with the African Leadership College in Mauritius to
deliver Business Management education. Her PhD looks at employability and talent management and how these concepts have an impact on graduates. She is regularly asked to contribute to global trade publications, and recent journal outputs have looked at graduate employment and graduate talent management.
Markku Sotarauta is Professor of Regional Development Studies in the Faculty of Management and Business at Tampere University, Finland. He specializes in leadership, innovation systems and policies, and institutional entrepreneurship in city and regional development. Markku has published widely on these issues in international journals and edited books. His latest publication, Leadership and the City: Power, Strategy and Networks in the Making of Knowledge Cities (2018), is published by Routledge. He has worked with the Finnish Parliament, many Finnish ministries, Sweden’s Innovation Agency as well as cities and regions in Finland and in other countries.
Peter Watt is Senior Lecturer in Management and Organization and Director of Research at York Business School, York St John University. His research explores the cultural, philosophical and theological underpinnings of managerial and organizational practice and thought.
The initial idea for this book originated from Kirsty Smy, Senior Commissioning Editor, of SAGE Publications, who suggested I should develop a proposal. The scope of the book was informed by discussions with Kirsteen Grant, of Edinburgh Napier University. The editorial work that ensued was far more challenging than I had anticipated and I would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge numerous individuals for their commitment to the project and help in bringing it to a successful conclusion. I am indebted to the other chapter authors who have contributed to this book. Each brought their own research and perspective of leadership to their chapter. Collectively, I believe they have helped to produce a distinctive book that offers undergraduates a readable, context-sensitive, nuanced and reflexive approach to studying contemporary leadership.
On behalf of all the chapter authors, I would like to thank the following reviewers for their invaluable feedback:
Linda Alker, Principal Lecturer, Manchester Metropolitan University Jane Boeske, Associate Lecturer, University of Southern Queensland Carol Bond, Lecturer, RMIT University Dave Chesley, Senior Lecturer, Leeds Beckett University Dean Horsman, Senior Lecturer, Leeds Becket University Heather Kent, Teaching Fellow, University of Sussex Frank Meier, PhD Fellow, Copenhagen Business School Pamella Murray, Senior Lecturer, University of Worcester Jan Myers, Associate Professor, Newcastle Business School Emma Roberts, former Associate Head of School (Learning & Teaching), Leeds Trinity University Sandra Romenska, Senior Lecturer and Deputy Head of School, St Andrews University Nataliya Rumyantseva, Senior Lecturer, University of Greenwich
Jon Salkeld, Principal Lecturer and Director of Corporate and UK Partnerships, Anglia Ruskin University Norbert Steigenberger, Associate Professor, Jonkoping University Geoff Thomas, Professor, University of Surrey
I would also like to thank all the participants who gave their time and shared their experience and perspective on leadership during the production of the book’s leadership videos. These videos will not only accompany the book but form part of SAGE’s wider leadership video collection, providing students with a glimpse into the reality of leadership, beyond the rhetoric often learned in the lecture hall. Thank you to Adam Foskett, Helen Francis, Peter Goddard, Paul Gray, Sarah Hawkins, Stephen Moir, Beverley Petrossian, Paul Stanley, Catherine Thomson, Diane Vincent and Erinn Woodside. Additionally, I would like to thank Pamela McCloskey and Carmen Chai for developing the book’s other online resources.
I am most grateful to the team at SAGE Publications for making this book possible. In particular, I am beholden to our Development Editor, Laura Walmsley, for her encouragement and support over the length of the project, and good advice for improving the book. I thank, too, the cover designer, Francis Kenney for working with me to produce such a symbolic and eye- catching cover for the book. I also appreciate Ruth Stitt, Sarah Cooke and Martha Cunneen.
John Bratton, Edinburgh
List of Figures 0.1 Leadership as an interconnected process 5 1.1 The classic Fayolian management cycle 17 2.1 The three traditional poles of a strategic plan 37 2.2 A framework for linking management strategy and leadership 38 2.3 Stages of the innovation process 49 4.1 The three levels of organizational culture 86 4.2 Climate as an artefact of organizational culture 88 6.1 A diagrammatic representation of the leadership grid 136 7.1 The augmented effect of transformational leadership 161 8.1 The incremental effect of group size on relationships 173 8.2 A taxonomy of relational theories 176 8.3 The vertical dyad 177 8.4 Relational leadership processes 182 8.5 Practising distributed/shared and team leadership 187 9.1 Kolb’s experiential cycle of learning 203 9.2 A framework for studying key HR policies and practices 206 9.3 The Harvard model of HRM 209 11.1 The performance management cycle 249 11.2 A framework for determinants of performance management 251 12.1 Informal and planned leadership development 271 13.1 A two-dimensional taxonomy of follower behaviour 298 13.2 Expectancy theory 305 13.3 Shein’s ‘road map’ of conversation 308 13.4 Balancing advocacy and inquiry 309 16.1 A strategy for creating a sustainable workplace 370 17.1 The relationship between place leaders, other actors and regional development and innovation 396
List of Tables 1.1 Competing definitions of organizational leadership 14 1.2 Summary of cited distinction between management and leadership 20 1.3 Development of the main theories of leadership 22 3.1 Traditional and non-traditional conceptualizations of power 65 5.1 Assessing the ethical behaviour in work organizations 111 5.2 Classifying ethical behaviour in organizations 111 6.1 Key Attributes Related to Leadership Effectiveness 129 6.2 Path–goal theory in action 140 6.3 Situational leadership in action 142 8.1 The traditional and high-performance team models 185 9.1 The Storey model of HRM 211 9.2 HRM and transformational leadership behaviours 214 11.1 A hierarchical taxonomy of meta and s
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